Periodontal diseases are infections that affect the structures around the teeth, which include your gums, bone and the periodontal ligament (this holds your tooth in). Periodontal disease is mainly caused by the build-up of various bacteria in dental plaque, but it can also be linked to genetics, smoking, medications, stress and poor nutrition.
Periodontitis is a more advanced gum disease where the inner layer of the patients gum pulls away from the tooth and the bone shrinks, causing pockets to form. These pockets can collect debris and become infected. Toxins in the bacteria found in plaque, therefore they begin to break down the bone and surrounding connective tissues, which can lead to permanent loss of teeth.